The Kiowa Peyote Meeting Disc 3

Ethnic Folkways Library FE 4601
Recorded and edited by Harry Smith

At the recording sessions the recordees selected the nature and order of their contribution with as little suggestion from myself as was practical. In editing, though most of the matter on the original tapes has been eliminated, the selections have been kept essentially in the order in which they were recorded.
On all of the recordings of music, the songs are explained and ritual or biographical data given by the singer. The spoken sections are in many cases of very great interest and amount to about a third of the material. In editing I naturally have tried to present things that are nice to hear, and to that end a large enough collection (over 1200 songs) was made so that the few items selected from it for release could be not only well performed and typical but also aesthetically appealing. As originally conceived the material collected in Anadarko was to have been divided into four series. For various reasons this system has had to be abandoned and what, if any, of the other recordings are issued remains to be seen. However, I print here my original classification to give some idea of the richness of songs in Anadarko.

SERIES A - Religion in Anadarko
Section 1 - The Peyote Meeting
Section 2 - Church Songs of Anadarko
SERIES B - Love Songs of Anadarko
Section 1 - A History of Kiowa Love Songs
Section 2 - Mrs. Chesney's Ballad Boxes
SERIES C - The Kiowa Tribe
Section 1 - Educational Methods of the Ancient Kiowa
Section 2 - The Social Organization of Kiowa Music
SERIES D - Opinions of Anadarko
Section 1 - Opinions Regarding Intrinsic Values
Section 2 - Opinions Regarding Empirical Values

For convenience sake, I have divided the material into three records. First, the "Four Songs" (the Opening Song, Midnight Water Song, Morning Water Song, and Quitting Song) that govern the progress of the ceremony, second, "Intercalation of Songs," and third, "Some Favorite Songs," The universal "Four Songs" and the more personal "Favorite Songs" come together on the "Intercalation of Songs" so we are really dealing with only two classes of song; the "Four Songs" that mark the stages of a Meeting and the "personal" songs more or less "owned" by individuals. A classification that has only two divisions, one consisting of four units and the other of many thousand, is admittedly unsatisfactory. The personal songs could have been divided into smaller groups such as ones used predominantly for healing, blessing, thanks-giving, etc., but the essentially two part division will suffice for this set of records. The "Four Songs" are also very convenient for use in contrasting the vocal methods of different singers or, in the case of Winston, how one singer performed the same material on different occasions.

The record in this set called "Some Favorite Songs" really consists of only some favorite songs of Everett. Out of the thirteen cuts on the two sides eleven are his. Although Winston recorded quite a few "personal" peyote songs I am including only two, both of them, especially the second, outstanding examples of what he called his "silver-throated" style. When the "Frosty Morning" love songs are issued Winston's voice can be heard at its best. In the meantime his two versions of each of the "Four Songs" on side 2 plus the two "personal" songs (Side 5 cuts I and 2) will give a good idea of his technique. As far as Everett's recordings are concerned it must be remembered that they have been sifted twice; first when Everett made his selection and, second, when I reduced his hundred or so "personal" Peyote Songs to eleven cuts. It has seemed best, however, to include more of Everett's "personal" songs than of Winston's in order to show what sort of song one singer considered "favorite." I have tried to include the most typical of Everett's performances, but this is scarcely possible in such a limited number of cuts. When peyote songs were sung outside of the Meeting people often discussed who they "belonged to" and who they learned them from. These resemble the short prayers spoken at the Meeting. This same sort of comment, in English, is given on most of Everett's records.

Side 5 Band 3 really consists of two songs. There is some confusion in my notes at this point. My written data says that two songs of Nathan Diobi are sung, but on the recording Everett says it's one song "for boys in service - - - I appreciate what they're doing - - - I got my own free country." Side 5 Band 4 is dedicated to Everett's sister. "My brother's (Ray Cozad's) tune. He told me to sing it - - - I'll see my grandson, which is our niece's children." Side 5 Band 5 "White man got ten commandments - - - we got ten Gods - - - different families got them." My written notes say this song is for only one of the ten gods. "Both my uncles have one of those Gods. Henry Tennedoah and Oliver Tennedoah." On the recording he says the name Tennedoah "comes from my grandparents on my mother's side." It means "You're over there, you got my heart." The above three sides are typical of Everett's earliest performances, in that he connects them with members of his family. It was only later that he began singing songs of his own and even later, songs of other people. When Everett says that the name "Tennedoah" comes from his grandparents on his mother's side he gives us a little glimpse of Kiowa social structure. It is congruent with his statement (Side 5 cut 4) about the niece's children being called "Grandchild." Side 5 Band 6 is especially interesting in that it is the first peyote song Everett composed. When he was seven or eight years old "(white) doctors gave up on me - - - said I had tuberculosis of the intestines - - - my mother and dad been taking me to Peyote Meetings - - - I just practically grew up in there." He was lying in the back of the car when he started to sing. "They said go on, sing it - - - I just thought of those words you know, I didn't know how to make a tune but I just sang those words and all the time I had a tune." What he sang was derived from one of the Kiowa Christian hymns. A superb performance by George of this particular hymn will be issued later. The words are the same but the tempo of the hymn is slower and, of course, lacks the typical Peyote Song syllables at the beginning and end. It is also in a much less ornamented style. Everett paraphrases the words "(Mr father is the creator - - - the most supreme. - - - I'm going to worship my God. - - - I feel good, I really feel good because God made me feel good." He adds the comment that "This so called cactus, if it hadn't been for that I don't know where I'd of been right now; been lying there (dead) with the rest of them I guess." Side 5 Cut 7. Everett says "I put the words in myself - - - I think the tune belongs to the Oto or Pawnee but I put Kiowa words in it." How he learned this tune I don't know, but he probably heard it from a visitor or a Meeting. Also, quite a few families have tape machines and use them to record songs. These tapes often travel around surprising distances. A Wichita who lived among Kiowas played me some that his wife's Pawnee relatives had sent him and to whom he returned records of local songs.

Side 6 Cut I is the song of Louis Cozad, Everett's father. Side 6 Cut 2 gives two sets of words to the same tune. The first is translated "I love my peyote, I like to hear my songs. I like to sing and I like to sing Peyote Songs." The second goes "I love my peyote, I love the effects of it." Side 6 Cut 3 is included because it is one of Everett's most typical and best performances. I was unable to get any commentary on the song other than that it was liked by the singer. Side 6 Cut 4 is a Morning Song of Everett's uncle, Henry Tennedoah. "In the morning this bird woke him up when he went to crowing - - - just like I told you they got their eagles, they got their water-birds and scissortails and what have you, all kinds of pretty birds - - - (but) it's a rooster (in this song)." Side 6 Cut 5 is another song on the Ten Gods. It is unfortunate that no translation of this or the other song on the same subject (Side 5 Cut 5) is available. In the so far unissued narrative that Winston recorded about the woman who visited the sky they are the ten fragments of her child. Side 6 Cut 6 is not one of Everett's best performances, but has been included because of the interest of the words. The order of creation is given as Earth, Ground, Human Being, Sun, and Peyote. "He give me something to worship. He give me the Peyote to worship." In his description of the Peyote Meeting (Side 1) he gives the order as Ground, Sun, Moon, Earth, Man, Woman: "He seen the man was lonely. God gave man a companion," not mentioning the time when Peyote was created. Blossom gives a similar but more extensive series (Side 4 Cut 9): Earth, Sky, Waters., Living Creatures, Living Creatures in the Waters, and says that "when he made this Earth he made the Peyote." This places Blossom's and Everett's statements regarding the time of the creation of Peyote at variance, the former saying it was placed by God coincident with the earth and the latter saying it was created last of all.

Play song


Performed by


Native Words



A Song I Like Winston Catt Kiowa
Another Song I Like Winston Catt Kiowa
Two Songs For Boys In The Service Everett Cozad Kiowa
My Brother's Tune For Our Sister Everett Cozad Kiowa
Song For The Ten Gods Everett Cozad Kiowa
My Own Song Everett Cozad Kiowa
Song I Put Kiowa Words To Everett Cozad Kiowa
My Father's Song Everett Cozad Kiowa
Two Sets Of Words To The Same Song Everett Cozad Kiowa
Comanche Peyote Song Everett Cozad Kiowa
Henry Tennedoah's Morning Song Everett Cozad Kiowa
Another Song For The Ten Gods Everett Cozad Kiowa
Song On Creation Everett Cozad Kiowa